Racetams are a family of nootropics that all feature a similar structure, most notably a structure called the pyrrolidone skeleton and a 2-pyrrolidone nucleus. All racetams are based on piracetam, which is the first nootropic compound ever discovered.
Currently, researchers have discovered 19 total racetams, each presenting unique potential effects and medicinal applications. Potential racetam capsule benefits often involve cognition, performance, and physical health.
Piracetam is the parent compound to all other racetams and arguably all current nootropics as it was the first nootropic ever discovered. It is generally the most used compound in the racetam family. Piracetam encourages an increased level of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter responsible for a wide variety of functions, including muscle movement, memory, and learning.
Piracetam has been shown to improve cognitive performance based on several different metrics. Studies suggest that piracetam is most notable for potentially improving neuroplasticity, resulting in improved learning and memory formation. Piracetam may also increase mental energy, motivation, and concentration.
Aniracetam is considered a longer-lasting form of piracetam. Unlike other racetams, aniracetam is fat soluble, meaning it dissolves in fats (or lipids) instead of water. This means that it takes longer for aniracetam to be broken down, allowing its potential effects to last longer.
Aniracetam has been found to increase concentration and focus by potentiating AMPA receptors. Studies have also shown that this racetam may increase sensory perceptions, improve creativity, and reduce symptoms of social anxiety. Aniracetam may also streamline communication between the brain’s hemispheres.
Fasoracetam has been shown to work on cholinergic, GABA, and glutamate receptors all at once. These receptors are involved in memory retention and formation. Fasoracetam is considered more powerful than piracetam while offering many of the same potential benefits.
Fasoracetam has been shown to improve general intelligence and cognition, but this racetam also shows promise in treating symptoms of depression and anxiety. Research also shows that fasoracetam may prevent learned helplessness while increasing motivation.
Oxiracetam capsules features many of the same potential benefits of other members of the racetam family, though it is considered five times more powerful piracetam. Oxiracetam is also categorized as an ampakine because it potentiates AMPA receptors.
Oxiracetam is not known to work on serotonin or dopamine, meaning that it generally has no effect on anxiety. This suggests that oxiracetam may be a pure cognitive nootropic. Studies have shown that it works mainly on areas involving learning and memory.
In simple terms, phenylpiracetam capsules is a modified form of piracetam with a phenyl group molecule attached to it. However, that modification reportedly results in phenylpiracetam being up to 60 times stronger than piracetam.
Potential benefits from phenylpiracetam include improved memory, increased learning capacity, and greater focus and concentration. Phenylpiracetam may also increase problem solving and attention switching abilities. Studies have found evidence to suggest that phenylpiracetam may increase levels of certain neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, GABA, and dopamine.
Pramiracetam may be responsible for improving memory and learning. Benefits may also include mental energy, clearer thinking, alertness and improved fluid intelligence, a skill related to improved writing, reading, and conversations. Some studies also suggest that pramiracetam can be used to treat Alzheimer’s, ADHD, and certain degenerative cognitive disorders.